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Key durability characteristics of GGBS-cement kiln dust based concretes

Authors: Sokrates Ioannou, Morsaleen Chowdhury, Ahmed Al-Qarawi, Patcy Paul, Amal Alghazo

Journal:  Emirati Journal of Civil Engineering and Applications

Volume: Vol 2 Issue 1

Keywords: Industrial waste, Sustainability, Cement kiln dust by-products, Concrete, Durability, Blast furnace slag.


With the advent of global warming, the concrete industry has the potential to drive the future of construction through sustainable cement technologies. These technologies rely on activation of industrial waste materials, such as Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) while Portland cement (PC) content is maintained at a minimum, resulting in concrete products of reduced embodied carbon footprint. This work reports on the durability of mixes made from PC, GGBS and CKD at incremental contents of 40-75% and 0-35% for GGBS and CKSD, respectively, in an attempt to identify durable formulations while maintaining blends at low embodied CO2 emissions in the Sultanate of Oman. Dimensional changes, sulfate and chloride resistance, as well as surface resistivity were determined and compared to those of a PC-based concrete formulation. The results suggest that, when GGBS and CKD were incorporated within the mix at an optimum content of 55% and 20% respectively, the concretes appeared to have exhibited promising durability characteristics which could lead towards the material’s implementation within a greater context.


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